General Definitions

1. Language :

It is the system of sounds, words, patterns etc. used by humans to communicate thoughts and feelings

2. Grammar:

It is the study or science of rules for forming words and combining them into sentences  

 English Grammar has the five major units:

a) Orthography :

It deals with study of spelling.

     Cat (=c-a-t)    book (=b-o-o-k)     house (=h-o-u-s-e)

These different words are formed by using different letters. In orthography, we study the letters a, b, c, d, e, —-z only, containing in words.

b) Etymology: 

It deals with study of origin and history of words and their meanings.

Ox, man, book, house

 In etymology we study the way of how words are formed.

c) Syntax

It deals with the rules for the arrangement of words into phrases and phrases into sentences.


 They went.

Johnson, Son of Thomas, is our classmate.

All examples are sentences, because each of the sets (or combinations) expresses complete sense.

d) Prosody: 

It deals with the study of rhythm, pause, tempo, stress and pitch features of a language:

Twinkle, twinkle little star,

How I wonder what you are!

The above example is a verse.

e) Punctuation:

It deals with the practice or system for putting different kinds of stops into the piece of writing:

The said, “it’s good to read books”.

The different stop marks shown above are punctuation marks.

3. Letter :

A letter is a written or printed sign representing sound used in speech.

Letters are:

1. Capital : A , B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z

2. Small : a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z

4. Word :

A word is a sound or combination of sound that expresses a meaning and forms an independent unit of the grammar or vocabulary of a language.

Example: man,   book,   house,   comfortable.

5. Phrase:

A phrase is a group of words, often with a finite verb, forming part of sentence.


He has a chain of gold.

She always speaks without any hesitation.

In the above sentences, the groups of words of gold and without any hesitation are Phrases.  

6. Sentence:

A sentence is the largest unit of grammar, usually containing a subject, a verb, an object, etc and expressing a statement, question or command.


Nepal is proud of Gautam Buddha and Mount Everest

Lily went home.

Where did he go?

All the above examples are sentences.

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